St Andrews Botanic Garden is leading the Green Corridors project to restore habitats and manage invasive species along two habitat corridors in St Andrews. In partnership with Fife Council, University of St Andrews and Buglife, we are monitoring the spread of species such as Japanese Knotweed, Himalayan Balsam and Giant Hogweed all the way from Craigtoun Park, along the Kinness Burn, through the Botanic Gardens and many public spaces like Cockshaugh Park and the University’s North Haugh campus.
The project is funded by Scottish Natural Heritage and will see the planting of hundreds of trees around St Andrews in 2020 and 2021 and the publication of a pioneering, landscape-scale Biosecurity Management Plan for the town. You can read an article on the project in Fife Today here.
Could you plant a tree?
In the first phase of the Green Corridors project, we delivered packets of seeds to about 500 houses in and around St Andrews. The seeds are all from species native to Scotland and in the second phase, we are looking for 30-50 households in and around the corridor sites who could plant a tree sapling in their gardens. The young trees are all native to Scotland and will over time will grow to provide home, food and shelter to other species, from lichens and mosses to invertebrates, birds and mammals. The species available are pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), downy birch (Betula pubescens), rowan (Sorbus aucuparia), wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis) and bird cherry (Prunus padus).
If you could find space for a tree in your garden, send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org and we’ll send you a tree (or some trees if you’re really keen).
The Green Corridors project will send ecologists and volunteers out into the Kinness Burn and North Haugh corridors to identify and remove invasive species growing along the corridors. You can volunteer to help with these tasks – keep an eye on our volunteers page – but you can play just as important a role by looking out for invasive species in your own garden or in other parts of St Andrews.
We will concentrate on three species: giant hogweed, Japanese knotweed and Himalayan balsam. All three are attractive plants with fascinating adaptations that help them to compete successfully in their natural ranges. Growing outside these ranges they can crowd out local flora and disrupt ecological relationships that have evolved over thousands of years without them. These plants grow at several locations in St Andrews, including along the Kinness and Swilken burns. The burns and their ‘green corridors’ provide much needed cover for wildlife moving around St Andrews. Because these invasive species grow and spread so well at riverbank locations, they can quickly take over these sensitive sites.
You can help by learning to recognising these species in your own garden and around town so that we can remove the plants and stop them spreading back into sensitive habitat corridors.
Let us know if you have seen these plants! Email us at email@example.com
Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera)
A fast-growing annual native to the western Himalayas, this plant that can quickly outcompete local flora in the riverside habitats it prefers. In the absence of its natural enemies, Himalayan balsam competes very successfully for light and space and for the attention of pollinators. It grows in large patches that die back after the growing season and can leave exposed soil that is then vulnerable to bank erosion
Download the identification sheet (pdf) showing how to recognise Himalayan Balsam at all times of the year.
Giant hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum)
Another annual plant, this time native to the Caucasus mountains in Russia and Georgia, giant hogweed looks like our native hogweed in early stages of growth but is unmistakably enormous when fully grown. Like Himalayan balsam, it can outcompete local flora and contribute to erosion along water courses.
Giant hogweed sap contains chemicals called furanocoumarins that cause skin to blister painfully in sunlight. Read more about this formidable defence mechanism here. Never touch or try to remove giant hogweed without seeking professional advice.
Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica)
Japanese knotweed is not an annual species and doesn’t even produce seeds when growing in the UK, instead spreading via underground rhizomes. The dense bamboo-like growth quickly shades other plants and the rhizomes allow the plant to relocate resources quickly and to grow through hard surfaces like pavements and masonry.